A. Moghimi; A. Sazgarnia; M. H. Aghkhani
IntroductionPistachio production has been adversely affected by Psylla, which is a devastating insect. The primary goal of this study was to select sensitive spectral bands to distinguish pistachio leaves infected by Psylla from healthy leaves. Diagnosis of psylla disease before the onset of visual cues ...
IntroductionPistachio production has been adversely affected by Psylla, which is a devastating insect. The primary goal of this study was to select sensitive spectral bands to distinguish pistachio leaves infected by Psylla from healthy leaves. Diagnosis of psylla disease before the onset of visual cues is crucial for making decisions about topical garden management. Since it is not possible to diagnose psylla disease even after the onset of symptoms with the help of color images by drones, hyperspectral and multispectral sensors are needed. The main purpose of this study was to extract spectral bands suitable for distinguishing healthy leaves from psylla leaves. For this purpose, in this paper, a new method for selecting sensitive spectral properties from hyperspectral data with the high spectral resolution is presented. The intelligent selection of sensitive bands is a convenient way to build multispectral sensors for a specific application (in this article, the diagnosis of psylla leaves). Knowledge of disease-sensitive wavelengths can also help researchers analyze multispectral and hyperspectral aerial images captured by satellites or drones.Materials and MethodsA total number of 160 healthy and diseased leaves were scanned in 64 spectral bands between 400-1100 nm with 10 nm spectral resolution. A random forest algorithm was used to identify the importance of features in classifying the dataset into diseased and healthy leaves. After computing the importance of the features, a clustering algorithm was developed to cluster the most important features into six clusters such that the center of clusters was 50 nm apart. To transfer the hyperspectral dataset into a multispectral dataset, the reflectance was averaged in spectral bands within ±15 nm of each cluster center and achieved six broad multispectral bands. Afterwards a support vector machine algorithm was utilized to classify the diseased and healthy leaves using both hyperspectral and multispectral datasets.Results and DiscussionThe center of clusters were 468 nm, 598 nm, 710 nm, 791 nm, 858 nm, and 1023 nm, which were calculated by taking the average of all the members assigned to the individual clusters. These are the most informative spectral bands to distinguish the pistachio leaves infected by Psylla from the healthy leaves. The F1-score was 90.91 when the hyperspectral dataset (all bands) was used, while the F1-score was 88.69 for the multispectral dataset. The subtle difference between the F1-scores indicates that the proposed pipeline in this study was able to select appropriately the sensitive bands while retaining all relevant information.ConclusionThe importance of spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared region (between 400 and 1100 nm) was obtained to identify pistachio tree leaves infected with psylla disease. Based on the importance of spectral properties and using a clustering algorithm, six wavelengths were obtained as the best wavelengths for classifying healthy and diseased pistachio leaves. Then, by averaging the wavelengths at a distance of 15 nm from these six centers, the hyperspectral data (64 bands) became multispectral (6 bands). Since the correlation between the wavelengths in the near-infrared region was very high (more than 95%), out of the three selected wavelengths in the near-infrared region (710, 791, and 1023), only the 710-nm wavelength, which was closer to the visible region, was selected. The results of classification of infected and diseased leaves using hyperspectral and multispectral data showed that the degree of classification accuracy decreases by about 2% and if only 4 bands are used, the degree of accuracy decreases by about 3%.The results of this study revealed that the proposed framework could be used for selecting the most informative spectral bands and accordingly develop custom-designed multispectral sensors for disease detection in pistachio. In addition, we could reduce the dimensionality of the hyperspectral datasets and avoid the issues related to the curse of dimensionalitylity.
A. Moghimi; M. H. Aghkhani; M. R. Golzarian
In recent years, automation in agricultural field has attracted more attention of researchers and greenhouse producers. The main reasons are to reduce the cost including labor cost and to reduce the hard working conditions in greenhouse. In present research, a vision system of harvesting robot was developed ...
In recent years, automation in agricultural field has attracted more attention of researchers and greenhouse producers. The main reasons are to reduce the cost including labor cost and to reduce the hard working conditions in greenhouse. In present research, a vision system of harvesting robot was developed for recognition of green sweet pepper on plant under natural light. The major challenge of this study was noticeable color similarity between sweet pepper and plant leaves. To overcome this challenge, a new texture index based on edge density approximation (EDA) has been defined and utilized in combination with color indices such as Hue, Saturation and excessive green index (EGI). Fifty images were captured from fifty sweet pepper plants to evaluate the algorithm. The algorithm could recognize 92 out of 107 (i. e., the detection accuracy of 86%) sweet peppers located within the workspace of robot. The error of system in recognition of background, mostly leaves, as a green sweet pepper, decreased 92.98% by using the new defined texture index in comparison with color analysis. This showed the importance of integration of texture with color features when used for recognizing sweet peppers. The main reasons of errors, besides color similarity, were waxy and rough surface of sweet pepper that cause higher reflectance and non-uniform lighting on surface, respectively.
M. H. Aghkhani; M. H. Abbaspour-Fard; M. R. Bayati; H. Mortezapour; S. I. Saedi; A. Moghimi
Drying is a high energy consuming process. Solar drying is one of the most popular methods for dehydration of agricultural products. In the present study, the performance of a forced convection solar dryer equipped with recycling air system and desiccant chamber was investigated. The solar dryer is comprised ...
Drying is a high energy consuming process. Solar drying is one of the most popular methods for dehydration of agricultural products. In the present study, the performance of a forced convection solar dryer equipped with recycling air system and desiccant chamber was investigated. The solar dryer is comprised of solar collector, drying chamber, silica jell desiccant chamber, air ducts, fan and measuring and controlling system. Drying rate and energy consumption in three levels of air temperature (40, 45 and 50 oC) and two modes of drying (with recycling air and no-recycling with open duct system) were measured and compared. The results showed that increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time and increased the energy consumption in the mode of non-recycling air system. The dryer efficiency and drying rate were better in the mode of recycling air system than open duct system. The highest dryer efficiency was obtained from drying air temperature of 50 oC and the mode of recycling air system. In general, the efficiency of solar collector and the highest efficiency of the dryer were 0.34 and 0.41, respectively.