%0 Journal Article
%T Development and Optimization a Threshing Unit for Sunflower Grain with Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
%J Journal of Agricultural Machinery
%I Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
%Z 2228-6829
%A Chavoshgoli, E.
%A Abdollahpour, Sh.
%A Ghasemzadeh, H. R.
%D 2022
%\ 06/22/2022
%V 12
%N 2
%P 169-179
%! Development and Optimization a Threshing Unit for Sunflower Grain with Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
%K critical velocity
%K Nutty sunflower
%K Optimization
%K Performance
%K RSM
%K threshing
%R 10.22067/jam.v12i2.83123
%X IntroductionThe nut sunflower is usually cultivated in small farms and is harvested with a low capacity of harvester at high moisture content. For the rigid threshing components, impact and knead force are so large as it leads to crushing of the grain or inner stress. This reduces marketability and the germination rate of seeds. The mechanical damage degree of sunflower grain is influenced by the material of the threshing beaters, the velocity of impact, moisture contents, etc. Traditional manual methods, that separate grain from the sunflower head, take a lot of time, require large manpower, have high grain damage, and low efficiency. The objective of the present work was to develop and optimize a threshing unit for nutty sunflower that would combine safe impact velocities with appropriate adjusting of its variable to maximize threshing efficiency whilst minimizing grain damage resulting from shearing, cracking, or crushing.Materials and MethodsThe nutty Sunflower heads were procured from the Experimental Orchard of University of Tabriz, Iran at the moisture content of harvesting. Axial threshing units using kinematic equation and properties of the grain, designed and constructed that the variables of its components are adjustable. The beater of the thresher is flexible, which the deformation and vibration undergoing the overall rotation and impact process becomes larger with increasing speed and prevents grain damage. The power required for threshing and separation grain from heads was calculated at about 4.5 kW. Diameter and rotational drum speed value estimated using relation (V= and study of other researches as considering critical impact velocity of sunflower grain. The length of the thresher was 1.2 m that estimated by determining the capacity and the number of beaters. Threshing efficiency (%), separation efficiency (%), and grain damage (%) were parameters of performance for study. The experimental design by the Response Surface Methodology in Design Expert software 11 with central composite experiment design developed and the affecting parameters on accuracy analyzed and optimized. The threshing unit was evaluated against three threshing drum speeds of 380, 280, and 180 (rpm), feed rates 4000, 3000, and 2000 (kg (head)h-1), moisture content of 60%, 45%, and 30 (%w.b).Results and DiscussionThe results showed that the models and effect of variables were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. The moisture content on threshing efficiency and grain damage had the greatest effect followed by drum speed and feed rate. While for separation efficiency, the feed rate had the most influence. With reducing feed rate and moisture content the threshing efficiency increased, although the decrease in drum speed reduced it. This might be due to sunflower grains adhering loosely to the head at the low moisture contents. The maximum (99.81) and minimum (96.12) percentage of threshed heads was at the moisture content of 30 and 60, respectively. The separation efficiency increased with reducing of feed rate and moisture content. Though, drum speed had insignificant efficacy statistically. The sunflower heads with high moisture content are fragile and brittle, also at high feed rates, the number of impact forces and collisions of heads rises in the condition of threshing. Therefore, the extra MOG is produced and passed from the separator grille. The feed rate of 2000 kg h-1 and moisture content of 30% was the maximum point of separation efficiency that obtained 69.82%. The grain damage decreased significantly with reducing drum speed (380 to 180) and moisture content (60 to 30). This result may be due to the reasons that at higher moisture content the husk of grains becomes soft. The goal of optimization is maximizing threshing and separation efficiency and minimizing grain damage that the optimized values of variables were determined 292.134 rpm for drum speed, 2000 kg h-1 for feed rate, and 30.7406% (w.b) for moisture content.Conclusion A threshing unit of sunflower, using properties of grains and kinematic equation, was designed and constructed. The models and effect of the variable were statistically significant on performances. The moisture content had a greater effect than other factors on threshing efficiency (%) and grain damage (%). Also, the feed rate of crops in thresher had the most influence on separation efficiency (%). With decreasing the moisture content, threshing and separation efficiency increased and grain damage reduced. The threshing efficiency (%), separation efficiency (%), and grain damage (%) were reported in the range of 96.12 to 99.81, 57.34 to 68.55, and 0.49 to 1.25, respectively. The optimized points were determined at the drum speed of 292.134 m s-1, feed rate of 2000 kg h-1, and moisture content of 30.7406% (w.b).
%U https://jame.um.ac.ir/article_35084_8029854208fdda29aa39033961ca7f9b.pdf