Ferdowsi University of MashhadJournal of Agricultural Machinery2228-682913220230622Thermal Analysis and Exergy of Linear Fresnel Reflectors for Feasibility of Use in Greenhouse Heating SystemThermal Analysis and Exergy of Linear Fresnel Reflectors for Feasibility of Use in Greenhouse Heating System1471624133510.22067/jam.2021.72345.1060FAS. NorooziM.Sc. Student of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, IranA. MalekiMechanical Engineering of Biosystems Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran0000-0002-9026-0273Sh. BesharatiMechanical Engineering of Biosystems Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, IranJournal Article20210905<strong>Introduction</strong><br />Solar energy is one of the most important sources of renewable energy, and it is used to address problems related to energy needs, including increasing fossil fuels, rising energy transportation costs, higher energy demand worldwide, and greenhouse gas emissions. Solar collectors harness the sun's thermal energy to convert it into useful and usable energy. Solar collectors are divided into several types, including parabolic trough collectors (PTCs), linear Fresnel reflectors (LFRs), solar plates, and central towers. Among these, the most common heat generation systems are linear adsorption technologies. In this study, we examine the use of LFR technology for greenhouse heating during the winter in Shahrekord.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods </strong><br />Previous studies (Huang <em>et al.,</em> 2014) were used for optical analysis. The Daneshyar model was utilized to calculate the amount of solar energy available at a particular location. Mathematical formulas were employed to calculate the instantaneous energy equilibrium, and a heat transfer resistance model was developed to calculate the heat loss of different parts of the collector. To create a model, the total amount of exergy must first be calculated, which can be done by using the Petlla formula given by Bellos <em>et al.</em> (2019).<br /><strong>Results and Discussion</strong><br />The following results were obtained from this study:<br /><br />The proposed mathematical model for calculating solar energy was accurate in terms of daily and instantaneous performance. This model was valid for both clear and cloudy days, making it applicable in a variety of weather conditions.<br />The maximum useful heat production of the current system for February was about 2.5 kW, resulting in an increased liquid temperature of 16 degrees Celsius in the heat tank.<br />The maximum thermal efficiency of the Fresnel collector during the day was 64%, while the average daily efficiency was 56.4%.<br />The most significant parameters that affected the production of useful energy were the position of the sun during the day and the number of cloudy days.<br />The system was capable of heating stored water to 98 degrees per day, available for up to 14 hours.<br />The system under consideration can be used to produce heat up to 1260 watts for 15 hours without heating the tank. The generated heat can be utilized in the food industry for steam production and industrial desalination of water.<br />The decrease in exergy efficiency was due to the reduction in the thermal efficiency of the system and the increase in the thermal difference between the collector and ambient temperatures. Higher values can be achieved by reducing the heat losses, which is a reason to reduce the exergy efficiency of the system.<br /><br /><strong>Conclusion </strong><br />This paper investigated the daily performance of a linear Fresnel collector with an 18 square meter mirror field, a parabolic collector, and an insulated storage tank with a volume of 250 liters. The investigation included experimental analysis and theoretical formulation of thermal phenomena under the weather conditions of Shahrekord. The mathematical model developed for this system is based on the energy balance in the collector and storage tank. The results show that this is an efficient greenhouse heating system, with an average thermal efficiency of 56%, which is reasonable and competitive with other similar technologies. Additionally, the cost of construction and maintenance of this system is much lower than that of competitors.<strong>Introduction</strong><br />Solar energy is one of the most important sources of renewable energy, and it is used to address problems related to energy needs, including increasing fossil fuels, rising energy transportation costs, higher energy demand worldwide, and greenhouse gas emissions. Solar collectors harness the sun's thermal energy to convert it into useful and usable energy. Solar collectors are divided into several types, including parabolic trough collectors (PTCs), linear Fresnel reflectors (LFRs), solar plates, and central towers. Among these, the most common heat generation systems are linear adsorption technologies. In this study, we examine the use of LFR technology for greenhouse heating during the winter in Shahrekord.<br /><strong>Materials and Methods </strong><br />Previous studies (Huang <em>et al.,</em> 2014) were used for optical analysis. The Daneshyar model was utilized to calculate the amount of solar energy available at a particular location. Mathematical formulas were employed to calculate the instantaneous energy equilibrium, and a heat transfer resistance model was developed to calculate the heat loss of different parts of the collector. To create a model, the total amount of exergy must first be calculated, which can be done by using the Petlla formula given by Bellos <em>et al.</em> (2019).<br /><strong>Results and Discussion</strong><br />The following results were obtained from this study:<br /><br />The proposed mathematical model for calculating solar energy was accurate in terms of daily and instantaneous performance. This model was valid for both clear and cloudy days, making it applicable in a variety of weather conditions.<br />The maximum useful heat production of the current system for February was about 2.5 kW, resulting in an increased liquid temperature of 16 degrees Celsius in the heat tank.<br />The maximum thermal efficiency of the Fresnel collector during the day was 64%, while the average daily efficiency was 56.4%.<br />The most significant parameters that affected the production of useful energy were the position of the sun during the day and the number of cloudy days.<br />The system was capable of heating stored water to 98 degrees per day, available for up to 14 hours.<br />The system under consideration can be used to produce heat up to 1260 watts for 15 hours without heating the tank. The generated heat can be utilized in the food industry for steam production and industrial desalination of water.<br />The decrease in exergy efficiency was due to the reduction in the thermal efficiency of the system and the increase in the thermal difference between the collector and ambient temperatures. Higher values can be achieved by reducing the heat losses, which is a reason to reduce the exergy efficiency of the system.<br /><br /><strong>Conclusion </strong><br />This paper investigated the daily performance of a linear Fresnel collector with an 18 square meter mirror field, a parabolic collector, and an insulated storage tank with a volume of 250 liters. The investigation included experimental analysis and theoretical formulation of thermal phenomena under the weather conditions of Shahrekord. The mathematical model developed for this system is based on the energy balance in the collector and storage tank. The results show that this is an efficient greenhouse heating system, with an average thermal efficiency of 56%, which is reasonable and competitive with other similar technologies. Additionally, the cost of construction and maintenance of this system is much lower than that of competitors.https://jame.um.ac.ir/article_41335_ce86d97bfa1eb5fbe1efb3308cecd61a.pdf