Introduction More than 30% of the heat energy generated by the engine is transferred by the cooling system. If this heat transfer is not accomplished properly, then the engine heat will increase and it will wear the parts by removing oil film between the pieces. A cooling system is used to remove this heat. The radiator is an important component of this system. Increasing heat transfer in the car engine by the cooling system is possible by using two methods of changing the radiator geometry and optimizing it and using fluids with high thermal properties. In this research, we investigated the improvement of radiator thermal performance using nanofluids using a laboratory model. The effect of nanoparticle volume fraction and cooling flow rate on heat transfer rate, and heat transfer coefficient was investigated. Materials and Methods In this research, a laboratory model was designed and manufactured to evaluate the thermal performance of the MF 285 tractor radiator using nanofluid. In this laboratory model, water was combined and used as a base fluid with nanoparticles AL2O3. 20 nm nanoparticles with volume percentages of 1 to 4% were used. An electric stirrer and magnetic stirrer were used to prepare the nanofluid. For the produced fluid to be usable, add SDBS surfactant to it. The temperature of the inlet fluid to the radiator was 85 °C and the cooling fluid flow rate was 3.18 to 15.08 (lit. min-1 )) and the airflow rate was 3.2 to 6.4 (m s-1). Two T-type thermocouples are installed to measure the inlet and outlet temperature of the radiator and two other front and rear fans to measure the inlet and outlet air temperature and four more are installed on the radiator to measure the radiator body temperature. Results and Discussion The results show that in nanofluid with a 4% volume fraction compared to a 1% volume fraction, it can be seen an increase of 8.7% in density, 7.7% in viscosity, and 9.1% in thermal conductivity, and also a decrease of 8.8% in specific heat. The maximum temperature difference between the inlet and outlet sensors of the radiator when the thermostat is open and the cooling fluid flows through the radiator is 12 to 15 °C. By increasing the speed of the electromotor from 40 Hz to 50 Hz, the temperature of the water cooling fluid at the outlet part becomes 4.7 °C cooler and the air temperature at the outlet part becomes 7.3 °C warmer. As the speed of the electromotor increases, the rate of heat transfer increases. At the maximum value of airflow and cooling fluid, by adding 4% by volume of nanoparticles to the base fluid, the rate of heat transfer can be increased about 37% compared to the base fluid. Compared to water, nanofluid containing 4% by volume of AL2O3 at maximum speed has a 28% increase in heat transfer coefficient. Also, by increasing the electric motor speed from 20 Hz to 40 Hz, the heat transfer coefficient of pure water shows about 26% increase and the nanofluid shows an average of 29% increase. Conclusion Increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles suspended AL2O3 in the base fluid increases the density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity, which increases the heat transfer rate and reduces the outlet temperature of the radiator. The presence of nanofluid in the engine cooling system increases the heat transfer from the radiator, and despite this feature, the size and weight of the radiator can be reduced without affecting its heat transfer performance. It can also improve heat transfer performance by increasing the cooling flow rate and the airflow rate.
Bahiraei, M., S. M. Hosseinalipour, K. Zabihi and E. Taheran. 2012. Using neural network for determination of viscosity in water-TiO2 Advances in Mechanical Engineering 4: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/742680.
Bozorg Bigdeli, M., M. Fasano, A. Cardellini, E. Chiavazzo, and P. Asinari. 2016. A review on the heat and mass transfer phenomena in nanoﬂuid coolants with special focus on automotive applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60: 1615-1633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.03.027.
Chiou, J. P. 1980. The effect of the flow nonuniformity on the sizing of the engine radiator. SAE paper no.800035, Society of Automotive Engineers 91: 250-260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/800035.
Choi, S. U. S. 1995. Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (ASME) 66: 99-105.
Das, S. K., N. Putra, P. Thiesen, and W. Roetzel. 2003. Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity enhancement for nanofluids. Journal of Heat Transfer 125 (4): 567-574. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1571080.
Fan, X., H. Chen, Y. Ding, P. K. Plucinski, and A. A. Lapkin. 2008. Potential of ‘nanofluids’ to further intensify microreactors. Green Chemistry 10 (6): 670-677.
Ghadimi, A., and I. H. Metselaar. 2013. The influence of surfactant and ultrasonic processing on improvement of stability. thermal conductivity and viscosity of titania nanofluid. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 51: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2013.06.001.
Gifford, N. L., A. G. Hunt, E. Savory, and R. J. Martinuzzi. 2006. Experimental study of low-pressure automotive cooling fan Aerodynamics under blocked Conditions. Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering 1: 1-8.
Heydarbeigi, G. 2017. Investigation of the effect of using copper nanofluid, silver nanofluid and aluminum oxide on the heat transfer rate of Ferguson 285 copper tractor engine radiator. First International Conference on Applied Research in Agricultural Sciences. Natural Resources and Environment. https://civilica.com/doc/673996.
Heyhat, M. M., F. Kowsary, A. M. Rashidi., S. Alem Varzane Esfehani, and A. Amrollahi. 2012. Experimental investigation of turbulent ﬂow and convective heat transfercharacteristics of alumina water nanoﬂuids in fully developed ﬂow regime. International Communication in Heat and Mass Transfer 39 (8): 1272-1278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2012.06.024.
Hussein, A. M., R. A. Bakar, and K. Kadirgama. 2014. Study of forced convection nanofluid heat transfer in the automotive cooling system. Case Studies Thermal Engineering 2: 50-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2013.12.001.
Holman, J. P. 1989. Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
Kong, L., J. Sun, and Y. Bao. 2017. Preparation, characterization and tribological mechanism of nanofuids. Royal Society of Chemistry Advances 7: 12599-12609. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA28243A.
Leong, K. Y., R. Saidur, S. N. Kazi, and A. H. Mamun. 2010. Performance investigation of an automotive car radiator operated with nanofluid-based coolants (nanofluid as a coolant in a radiator). Applied Thermal Engineering 30: 2685-2692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2010.07.019.
Masuda, H., A. Ebata, and K. Teramae. 1993. Alteration of thermal conductivity and viscosity of liquid by dispersing ultra-fine particles. Dispersion of Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 ultra-fine particles. Netsu Bussei 7: 227-233.
Maxwell, J. C. 1891. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
Nguyen, C., F. Desgranges, G. Roy, N. Galanis, T. Mare, S. Boucher, and H. A. Mintsa. 2008. Viscosity data for Al2O3–water nanofluid–hysteresis: is heat transfer enhancement using nanofluids reliable?. International Journal of Thermal Sciences 47 (2): 103-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2007.01.033.
Nisar, K. S., D. Khan, A. Khan, W. A. Khan, I. Khan, and A. M. Aldawsari. 2019. Entropy Generation and Heat Transfer in Drilling Nanoliquids with Clay Nanoparticles. Entropy 21 (12): 1226. https://doi.org/10.3390/e21121226.
Pak, B. C., and Y. I. Cho. 1998. Hydraulic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxide particles. Experimental Heat Transfer 11 (2): 151-170. https://doi.org/10.1080/08916159808946559.
Pandey, S. D., and V. K. Nema. 2012. Experimental analysis of heat transfer and friction factor of nanofluid as a coolant in a corrugated plate heat exchanger. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 38: 248-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2011.12.013.
Pecora, R. 1985. Dynamic Light Scattering. Applications of Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. Springer.
Peyghambarzadeh, S. M., S. H. Hashemabadi, M. Seiji Jamnani, and S. M. Hoseini. 2011, a. Improving the cooling performance of automobile radiator with Al2O3/water nanofluid. Applied Thermal Engineering 31 (10): 1833-1838. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.02.029.
Peyghambarzadeh, S. M., H. Hashemabadi, S. M. Hoseini, and M. Seiji Jamnani. 2011, b. Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement using water/ethylene glycol based nanofluids as a new coolant for car radiators. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 38 (9): 1283-1290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2011.07.001.
Raja, M., R. Vijayan, P. Dineshkumar, and M. Venkatesan. 2016. Review on nanoﬂuids characterization, heat transfer characteristics and applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 64: 163-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.05.079.
Sabralilou, B., A. Mohebbi, E. Akbarian, and A. Rezvanivand fanaei. 2020. Aero-acoustical study of axial fan using computational fluid dynamics. Journal of Agricultural Machinery 10 (2): 255-264. (In Persian). DOI: 22067/jam.v10i2.74963.
Turgut, A., I. Tavman, M. Chirtoc, H. P. Schuchmann, C. Sauter, and S. Tavman. 2009. Thermal conductivity and viscosity measurements of waterbased TiO2 International Journal of Thermophysics 30 (4): 1213-1226.
White, F. M. 2002. Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill; 5th ed.
Williams, W. C., J. Buongiorno, and W. L. Hu. 2008. Experimental investigation of turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure loss of alumina/water and zirconia/water nanoparticle colloids (nanofluids) in horizontal tubes. Journal of Heat Transfer 130 (4): 042412. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2818775.
Wong, K. V., and O. D. Leon. 2010. Applications of nanofluids. Current and future. Advances in Mechanical Engineering Article ID 519659: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/519659.
Yiamsawas, T., A. S. Dalkilic, O. Mahian, and A. Wongwises. 2013. Measurement and correlation of the viscosity of waterbased Al2O3 and TiO2 nanofluids in high temperatures and comparisons with literature reports. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology 34 (12): 1697-1703. https://doi.org/10.1080/01932691.2013.764483.
Rahmati nejad, B., Abbasgholipour, M., & Mohammadi Alasti, B. (2022). Experimental Evaluation of Heat Transfer of MF 285 Tractor Radiator, using Nano-fluid AL2O3+Water. Journal of Agricultural Machinery, 12(3), 281-299. doi: 10.22067/jam.2020.58870.0
B. Rahmati nejad; M. Abbasgholipour; B. Mohammadi Alasti. "Experimental Evaluation of Heat Transfer of MF 285 Tractor Radiator, using Nano-fluid AL2O3+Water". Journal of Agricultural Machinery, 12, 3, 2022, 281-299. doi: 10.22067/jam.2020.58870.0
Rahmati nejad, B., Abbasgholipour, M., Mohammadi Alasti, B. (2022). 'Experimental Evaluation of Heat Transfer of MF 285 Tractor Radiator, using Nano-fluid AL2O3+Water', Journal of Agricultural Machinery, 12(3), pp. 281-299. doi: 10.22067/jam.2020.58870.0
Rahmati nejad, B., Abbasgholipour, M., Mohammadi Alasti, B. Experimental Evaluation of Heat Transfer of MF 285 Tractor Radiator, using Nano-fluid AL2O3+Water. Journal of Agricultural Machinery, 2022; 12(3): 281-299. doi: 10.22067/jam.2020.58870.0