with the collaboration of Iranian Society of Mechanical Engineers (ISME)

Document Type : Research Article


1 University of California

2 Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Physics, Mashad, Iran

3 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


Pistachio production has been adversely affected by Psylla, which is a devastating insect. The primary goal of this research study was to select sensitive spectral bands to distinguish pistachio leaves infected by Psylla from healthy leaves.
Materials and Methods
A total number of 160 healthy and diseased leaves were scanned in 64 spectral bands between 400-1100 nm with 10 nm spectral resolution. A random forest algorithm was used to identify the importance of features in classifying the dataset into diseased and healthy leaves. After computing the features importance, a clustering algorithm was developed to cluster the most important features into six clusters such that the center of clusters were 50 nm apart. To transfer the hyperspectral dataset into a multispectral dataset, the reflectance was averaged in spectral bands within ±15 nm of each cluster center and achieved six broad multispectral bands. Afterwards, a support vector machine algorithm was utilized to classify the diseased and healthy leaves using both hyperspectral and multispectral datasets.
Results and Discussion
The center of clusters were 468 nm, 598 nm, 710 nm, 791 nm, 858 nm, and 1023 nm, which were calculated by taking the average of all the members assigned to the individual clusters. These are the most informative spectral bands to distinguish the pistachio leaves infected by Psylla from the healthy leaves. The F1-score was 90.91 when the hyperspectral dataset (all bands) was used, while the F1-score was 88.69 for the multispectral dataset. The subtle difference between the F1-scores indicates that the proposed pipeline in this study was able to select appropriately the sensitive bands while retaining all relevant information.
The results of this study revealed that the proposed framework could be used for selecting the most informative spectral bands and accordingly develop custom-designed multispectral sensors for disease detection in pistachio. In addition, we could reduce the dimensionality of the hyperspectral datasets and avoid the issues related to the curse of dimensionality.  


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