نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تبریز

2 مؤسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم کشور

چکیده

خاک‌ورزی یک عمل زمان‌بر و هزینه‌بر می‌باشد که با استفاده از برنامه عملیات زراعی می‌توان به میزان قابل توجهی در مصرف سوخت، انرژی و زمان صرفه‌جویی نمود. افزایش هزینه‌ی سوخت کشاورزی باعث شده که در مصرف آن صرفه‌جویی شود تا هزینه تولید محصول کاهش یابد. با توجه به مزایای خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی و کمبود تحقیق علمی روی ادوات خاک‌ورزی حفاظتی وارداتی و تولید داخل و اهمیت فاکتورهای سرعت و عمق خاک‌ورزی بر عملکرد انواع خاک‌ورزها، این تحقیق در قالب طرح آزمایشی اسپلیت پلات (کرت‌های خرد شده) بر پایه‌ی بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی اجرا گردید. فاکتور اصلی عمق خاک‌ورزی (در دو سطح 10 و 20 سانتی‌متر) و فاکتور فرعی سرعت خاک‌ورزی (در چهار سطح 6، 8، 10 و 12 کیلومتر بر ساعت برای شهرستان بستان‌آباد و 8، 10، 12 و 14 کیلومتر بر ساعت برای شهرستان هشترود) و در چهار تکرار با استفاده از خاک‌ورز مرکب آگرومت پنج شاخه ساخت شرکت سازه کشت بوکان که بیش‌تر در آذربایجان‌شرقی رواج یافته، با استفاده از دو دستگاه تراکتور مسی فرگوسن 285 و 399 به‌ترتیب در شهرستان‌های بستان‌آباد و هشترود، با نوع بافت خاک ماسه لومی، خوب دانه‌بندی شده انجام گرفت. در شهرستان بستان‌آباد و هشترود، اثر فاکتورها به تنهایی و اثر متقابل سرعت و عمق خاک‌ورزی بر مصرف سوخت در سطح احتمال یک درصد (01/0 ≥p) معنی‌دار شد. نتایج نشان دادند که با افزایش سرعت خاک‌ورزی، به‌دلیل انجام سریع عملیات خاک‌ورزی واحد سطح، مصرف سوخت در واحد سطح کاهش پیدا کرده و هم‌چنین با افزایش عمق خاک‌ورزی، به‌دلیل افزایش مقاومت کششی و استفاده از توان تراکتور بیشتر برای غلبه بر این مقاومت، مصرف سوخت افزایش پیدا نمود. لذا با توجه به بررسی‌های انجام گرفته مناسب‌ترین سرعت خاک‌ورزی، 10 کیلومتر بر ساعت با توجه به میزان مصرف سوخت پیشنهاد می‌گردد. هم‌چنین با افزایش عمق خاک‌ورزی، مصرف سوخت افزایش می‌یابد لذا توصیه می‌گردد که با حداقل عمق مورد نیاز خاک‌ورزی صورت پذیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of conservation tillage forward speed and depth on farm fuel consumption

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Jalali 1
  • A Mahmoudi 1
  • M Valizadeh 1
  • I Skandari 2

1 Tabriz University

2 Dry land Agriculture Research Institute, Maragheh

چکیده [English]

Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Much research has focused on either reducing or eliminating tillage operations to develop sustainable crop production methods. The greatest costs in farm operations are associated with tillage due to greater specific energy requirement in tillage and the high fuel costs. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with eitherprimary or secondary tillage or planting operations. The amount of fuel saved depends on the combined operations. Generally, light tillage, spraying, and fertilizing operations consume between 0.25 and 0.50 gallons of diesel fuel per acre. Fuel savings of 0.12 to 0.33 gallons per acre can usually be expected from combining operations. Eliminating one primary tillage operation and combining one light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operation with another tillage or planting operation can usually save at least a gallon of diesel fuel per acre. Combining operations has the added benefit of reducing wheel traffic and compaction. To improve the tillage energy efficiency, implementing effective and agronomic strategies should be improved. Different tillage systems should be tested to determine the most energy efficient ones. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Tillage is a time consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save considerable amounts of fuel, time and energyconsumption. Mankind has been tilling agricultural soils for thousands of years to loosen them, to improve their tilth for water use and plant growth and to cover pests. Tillage is a process of creating a desired final soil condition for seeds from some undesirable initial soil conditions through manipulation of soil with the purpose of increasing crop yield.The aim of conservation tillage is to improve soil structure. Considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country, and considering the importance of tillage depth and speed in different tiller performance, this investigation was carried out.
Materials and methods: This investigation was carried out based on random blocks in the form of split plot experimental design. The main factor, tillage depth, (was 10 and 20cm at both levels) and the second factor istillage forward speed, (was 6, 8, 10, 12 km h-1 in four levels for Bostan-Abad and 8, 10, 12, 14 km h-1 for Hashtrood) with 4 repetitions. It was carried out by using complex tillager made in the Sazeh Keshte Bukan Company, which is mostly used in Eastern Azerbaijan and using Massey Ferguson 285 and 399tractors and its fuel consumptionwas studied.
Results and Discussion: In this study, the effect of both factors on the feature of fuel consumption was examined. Regarding tillage speed effect for studies characteristic in Bostan-Abad at 1% probability level fuel consumption was effective. The effect of tillage depth has significance at 5% probability level on fuel consumption. The interaction effect of tillage speed and depth on fuel consumption was significant at probability level of 1% . In Hashtrood, the effect of tillage speed was significant on fuel consumption at probability level of 1% , and also tillage depth effect was significant on fuel consumption amount at probability of 1% . The interaction effect of tillage speed and depth on fuel consumption was significant at 1% level of probability .
Conclusions: In this study, the effect of both factors on fuel consumptionwas examined. In Bostan-Abad and Hashtroud on the whole, the results indicated that with the increase in the speed of tillage, fuel consumption, was reduced per hectar.The speed of 10 kilometers per hour was the best for this implemented work. Also, with an increasing depth of tillage, the fuel consumption increased.Through an increase in tillage speed, fuel consumption mass reduced at unit level. Moreover, the optimum speed was concluded to be 10km per hour. The best tillage depth using this machine is 10cm.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conservation tillage
  • Depth
  • Fuel consumption
  • Soil
  • Speed

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