خشک کردن یکی از رایج ترین روش های نگهداری مواد غذایی و محصولات کشاورزی می باشد. با عمل خشک کردن آب آزاد که باعث رشد میکروارگانیسم ها و فساد می شود، از محصول حذف شده و باعث افزایش مدت نگهداری می گردد. روشهای مختلفی برای خشک کردن وجود دارد که یکی از مهم ترین روش ها از نظر هزینه سرمایه گذاری و عملیات، روش خشک کردن با استفاده از انرژی خورشیدی است. در این تحقیق روند انتقال گرما و ضریب انتقال حرارت صفحه جاذب تخت برای دو حالت بدون چرخش و با چرخش (با قابلیت تعقیب تابش خورشید) در یک خشک کن خورشیدی با صفحه تخت مقایسه شد. آزمایشات در شهریور ماه و در شهرستان آذرشهر استان آذربایجان شرقی انجام گرفت. برای این منظور سطح صفحه جاذب به چهار ناحیه مساوی تقسیم گردید. دبی هوای جاری در خشک کن 0/0185 متر مکعب بر ثانیه بود. نتایج حاصل از آزمایش و تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که انتقال گرما در هر دو حالت از اوایل صبح روندی افزایشی داشته و در ساعات 14-12 به مقدار حداکثر خود رسید. این روند در نوع بدون چرخش بهدلیل کاهش انباشت گرمایی همگن تر از نوع با چرخش بود. مقدار گرمای انتقال یافته در نوع با چرخش 36/1 درصد بیش تر از نوع بدون چرخش بود. برای افزایش گرمای انتقالی از خشک کن طراحی سیستمی که بتواند همزمان با افزایش دما، دبی جریان هوا را تغییر دهد می تواند راندمان خشک کن را افزایش دهد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigation of one-dimensional heat flow in a solarflat plate collector with sun tracing system
Drying is one of the most common methods for storing food and agricultural products. During drying process, free water that causes the growth of microorganisms and spoilage of products is removed from the product. There are several methods for drying of agricultural products. one of the most important methods of investment is drying by using sunlight. Iran is situated at 25- 43oE longitude and mean solar radiation is about 4.9 kwh.m-2.d-1. Because of the proper solar radiations in 95% of the agricultural areas in Iran, solar drying is widely used for drying of fruits and vegetables. The use of solar dryer causes saving in energy consumption and processing costs for drying of products in farms and gardens. Several researchers investigated heat transfer and heat flow in dryers. Selection of appropriate method was carried out for drying of agricultural products using heat pump. Experiments were done and mathematical relationships were estimated to obtain correlation parameters between Reynolds number and Nusselt number for the three cases of solar dryer (cabinet, indirect and combination).The best working conditions were determined for three types of solar collectors (flat, finned and corrugated). In this study, the process of heat transfer and heat transfer coefficient of a solar dryer with and without rotation of absorber plate was compared.
Materials and Methods
The experiments were conducted in Azarshahr, East Azarbayjan province, Iran in September 2014. Newton's law of thermodynamic was used to analyze the working condition of solar absorber. For this purpose the absorber plate was divided into four equal parts. According to the thermal equations and related boundary conditions as well as the relationship between heat transfer coefficient and the temperature gradient, equation 1 for the Nusselet number obtained:
Beside the relationship between Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient is defined as equation 2:
Finally variation of total heat flow over the time at different surfaces of the collector is determined by using equation 3:
Two cases (solar panel with rotation and without rotation) were considered for testing. Data measuring was carried out for 9 hours from 8 to 17. The fluid flow rate was 0.0185m3.s-1. The dryer was installed in an environment with air temperature of 31.6 oC and 31.8 oC, with the air velocity of 0.58 m.s-1 and 0.54 m.s-1 and with the relative air humidity of about 21%and 21.5% at the first and second days, respectively. The dryer had an automatic temperature controller to fix the air temperature with an accuracy of ±0.1 oC. An anemometer Yk-2005AM model was used to regulate the required air velocity. The output data of the thermocouples was recorded by a digital thermometer (DL-9601A, Lutron) that was connected to a computer using RS232 cable and recorded the temperature at required point every an hour. The relative humidity of the ambient was measured every hour with a digital hygrometer (HT.3600, Taiwan), accuracy of 3%. By assembling controlling system with a DC motor, a precious photocell and a proper mechanism, the frame would rotate by the sun and followed solar radiation, therefore more solar energy produced in solar panel.
Results and Discussion
The results of the experiments showed that the heat transfer process increased in both cases from the early morning and reached to its maximum value around 12 to 14 o’clock. The trend was more homogeneous in the dryer by absorber plate without rotation due to the decline of the heat accumulation. The mean temperature rise in the solar dryer without rotation was 37oC and in the solar dryer with rotation was 54oC. Because of the rotation of solar plate, variations of solar radiation were low. Therefore, by rotation of the solar dryer panel the temperature rise was 27oC. The values of heat transfer coefficient in the solar dryer with rotation were decreased by the time. This reduction in the hours before noon is more than after noon. This is due to the reduction of the temperature gradient in the solar absorber plate. Also the results showed that heat transfer coefficient in the lower levels (S1 and S2) is more than higher levels (S3 and S4). Variations of the heat flow for the solar dryer with rotation is more than the other. Because in the first one, the absorber plate was followed the solar radiation and generated heat in the plate increases and the fan does not have the ability to discharge the generated heat. The total amount of heat transfer in absorber plate with rotation was 36.1% higher than the absorber plate without rotation. To increase the heat transfer from the dryer, design of the system to change air flow rate by increasing temperature, can increase the efficiency of the dryer.
In this study the performance of the absorber plate in a solar dryer in two cases with rotation and without rotation were compared. The results showed that by rotation of the solar absorber plate the output temperature of the collector rises about 27oC. Thermal fluctuation in the rotation solar plate is lower than the solar plate without rotation.