با همکاری انجمن مهندسان مکانیک ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

خاک‌ورزی به‌عنوان مرحله مقدماتی برای تولید محصولات کشاورزی، حجم بالایی از انرژی را مصرف می‌کند. با توجه به بحران انرژی و انتشار گازهای گلخانه‌ای ناشی از مصرف بی‌رویه سوخت‌های فسیلی تمام تلاش‌ها بر آن است که مصرف انرژی تا حد ممکن کاهش یابد. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر پارامترهای سرعت پیشروی، عمق شخم و رطوبت خاک بر میزان مصرف سوخت و نیروی کششی مورد نیاز طی عملیات شخم با گاوآهن برگردان‌دار سه خیش سوارشونده در خاکی با بافت رسی می‌باشد. آزمایش‌ها با استفاده از روش سطح پاسخ مطابق با طرح مرکب مرکزی (CCD) با در نظر گرفتن سه سطح برای سرعت پیشروی تراکتور (4، 5 و 6 کیلومتر بر ساعت)، سه سطح رطوبت خاک (12، 16 و 20 درصد) و سه سطح عمق خاک‌ورزی (20، 25 و 30 سانتی‌متر) انجام گردید. از نرم‌افزار Design Expert 8.0.6 برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌های آزمایش استفاده شد. نتایج تجزیه و تحلیل آماری نشان داد، اثر عوامل عمق شخم، رطوبت خاک و سرعت پیشروی بر روی میزان مصرف سوخت و نیروی کششی مورد نیاز در سطح احتمال 1 درصد معنی‌دار بود. متغیرهای مستقل به‌صورت معادلات رگرسیونی مرتبه دوم مدل‌‍سازی شدند و نقاط بهینه این متغیرها به‌دست آمد. بیشترین درصد مطلوبیت در سرعت پیشروی 08/5 کیلومتر بر ساعت، عمق شخم 20 سانتی‌متر و رطوبت خاک41/16 درصد اندازه‌گیری شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

1. Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Y., and R. Sedghi. 2013. Prediction of tensile strength and energy requirement for sub-soiling operation using fuzzy logic method. Journal of Agricultural Machinery 3 (2): 104-113. (In Farsi).
2. Abbouda, S. K., A. H. Alhashem, and O. M. Saeed. 2001. The Effect of some operating parameters on field performance of a 2WD tractor. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University (Basic and Applied Sciences) 16: 94-103.
3. Al-Suhaibani, S. A., and A. E. Ghaly. 2010. Effect of plowing depth of tillage and forward speed on the performance of a medium size chisel plow operating in a sandy soil. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 (3): 247-255.
4. Bukhari, S., J. M. Baloch, G. R. Mari, A. N. Mirani, A. B. Bhuttoand, and M. A. Bhutto. 1990. Effect of different speeds on the performance of moldboard plow. AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America 22 (3): 79-82.
5. Darabi, S., M. Behroozi-Lar, E. Ebrahimiand, and B. Karami. 2012. Extraction of fuel consumption changes at the farm level to optimize energy consumption primary plowing in agricultural production. 7th National Congress of Agricultural machinery Engineering and Mechanization, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. (In Farsi).
6. Earl, R. 1997. Assessment of the behavior of field soils during compression. Journal of Agriculture Engineering Research 68: 147-157.
7. Fazeli, M., Y. Abbasspour-Guilandeh, G. Shahgholiand, and M. Noushyar. 2012. Comparison of tensile strength and energy of conventional cultivators. 7th National Congress of Agricultural machinery Engineering and Mechanization, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. (In Farsi).
8. Giri, S. K. and S. Prasad. 2007. Drying kinetics and rehydration characteristics of microwave-vacuum and convective hot-air dried mushrooms. Journal of Food Engineering 78 (2): 512-521.
9. Godwin, R. J. 2007.A review of the effect of implement geometry on soil failure and implement forces. Soil and Tillage Research 97: 331-340.
10. Godwin, R. J., M. J. Dogherty, C. Saundersand, and A. T. Balafoutis. 2007. A force prediction model for mouldboard ploughs incorporating the effects of soil characteristic properties, plough geometric factors and ploughing speed. Biosystems Engineering 97: 117-129.
11. Harrison, H. P., and W. B. Reed. 1968. Analysis of draft, depth and speed of tillage equipment. Agricultural Engineering International 10 (1): 14-23.
12. Hauck, D., V. Hofmanand, and H. Kucera. 1984. Traction – horsepower demonstration. ASAE Paper No. 84-1061, St. Joseph, MI 49085, U.S.A. 10P.
13. Hemmat, A., and V. I. Adamchuk. 2008. Sensor systems for measuring soil compaction: Review and analysis. Computer and Electronic in Agriculture 63: 89-103.
14. Hosseinzdeh Samani, B., E. Fayyazi, B. Ghobadian, and S. Rostami. 2016. Studying and optimizing the biodiesel production from mastic oil aided by ultrasonic using response surface method. Journal of Agricultural Machinery 6 (2): 440-450. (In Farsi).
15. Janulevicius, A., A. Juostas, and G. Pupinis. 2013. Tractor’s engine performance and emission characteristics in the process of ploughing. Energy Conversion and Management 75 (1): 498-508.
16. Kamakar, S., S. R. Ashrafizadeh, and R. L. Kushwaha. 2009. Experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics modeling for narrow tillage tool draft. Journal of Terramechanics 46: 277-283.
17. Karparvarfard, S. H., and H. Rahmanian-Koushkaki. 2010. Development of fuel consumption equation: Test case for a tractor chisel-ploughing in a clay loam soil. Biosystems Engineering 130: 23-33.
18. Kepner, R. A., R. Bainer, and E. L. Barger. 1987. Principles of farm Machinery. The AVI publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Connecticut. 486 P.
19. Kheiralla, F. A. 2004. Modeling of power and energy requirements for tillage implements operating on Serdang sandy clay loam, Malaysia. Soil and Tillage Research 78: 21-34.
20. Kushwaha, R. L., and Z. X. Zhang. 1998. Evaluation of factors and current approaches related to computerized design of tillage tools: A review. Journal of Terramechanics 35: 69-86
21. Loghavi, M., and A. Moradi. 1996. Draft and drawbar power requirement of moldboard plow in a clay loam soil. Iran Agricultural Research 15 (2): 203-214.
22. Matthes, R. K. W. F., I. W. Watson, K. Savelle and D. L. Sirois. 1988. Effect of load and speed on fuel consumption of a rubber-tired skidder. Transactions of ASABE 31 (1): 37-39.
23. Mckyes, E. 1985. Soil cutting and tillage. Amsterdam of Holland.368 P.
24. Moitzi, G., H. Weingartmann, and J. Boxberger, 2006. Effects of tillage systems and wheel slip on fuel consumption. Energy Efficiency and Agricultural Engineering. International Scientific Conference Pp. 16-23.
25. Montgomery, D. C. 2008. Design and Analysis of Experiments, 8th edn. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.725 P.
26. Rashidi, M., I. Najjarzadeh, B. Jaberinasab, S. M. Emadi, and M. Fayyazi. 2013. Effect of soil moisture content, tillage depth and operation speed and draft force of moldboard plow. Journal of Science Research 16 (2): 245-249.
27. Rezapour-Sarabi, M., T. Mesri- Gondoshmian, Y. Abbaspour-Guilandehand A. Ahmadi. 2015. Determining the fuel consumption of the tractor MF6290 in the conventional tillage and no-tillage systems. 9th National Congress of Agricultural machinery Engineering and Mechanization, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. (In Farsi).
28. Roozbeh, M., and A. Hemmat. 2003. Evaluation and investigation of energy consumption in different tillage methods in corn planting. Journal of Agricultural Science 33: 117-128. (In Farsi).
29. Saunders, M., P. Lewisand, and A. Thornhill. 2000. Research methods for business students. 2nd edition. Harlow: Pearson Education.
30. Sirhan, A., B. Snober, and A. Baltikhi. 2002. Management of primary tillage operation to reduce tractor fuel consumption. AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America 33 (4): 9-11.
31. Zhao, X., G. Zhouand, and Q. Tian. 2009. Study on the shear strength of deep reconstituted soils. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology 19: 405-408.